This chapter deals with research background, problem statement, objective of the research, significance of the research, scope of the research and definition of operational variables.
In foreign language teaching, an important thing to be considered by the teacher is the technique of learning. Students have different in learning and different problem when classes are taught. Some of them are easy to understand and some of them are difficult. One aspect of learning English that prove the students are different from others is speaking. Usually, not only the students find some difficulties to get what their friends are talking about but also the teacher toward her students. Moreover, even when you are able to speak, just as important thing is how to express it. Therefore, teacher has to choose one technique that fulfills the aspects of speaking and how to express it.
In learning English, one of the important skills which students have to have is speaking skill. Students have to have good pronunciation, intonation, grammatically and appropriate vocabulary to speak. However, not only those qualifications but also the expression when they are speaking is just as important. No matter students’ phonology, syntax, or even your semantic are without expression is nothing.
The description above, the researcher offered one technique, namely Satir Categories. Satir Categories handle different language behaviors for enabling better communication between individual. These categories give the description for the styles used major portion of communication, and provide valuable information on the preferences and mannerisms of people when involved in a conversation that hoped can improve students’ speaking ability. Moreover, it mainly helps to maximize students’ power of communication with others.
In addition, (H. P. Grice 1967) said that, in order to communicate accurately and efficiently speakers and listeners try to cooperative with another. Speakers talk in audible voices, use language they believe their listener know, and adhere to the phonology, syntax, and semantics of those languages. Just as important, however, are the convention speakers and listeners observe in what is said and how it is expressed. Put concisely, speakers try to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear and listener interpret what they say on the assumption that they are trying to live up to this ideals.
Furthermore, NLP proposed a number of simple technique involving matching, pacing, and leading for establishing rapport with people. There are a number of technique explored in NLP that are supposed to be beneficial in building and maintaining rapport such as; matching and pacing non-verbal behavior (body posture, head position, gestures, voice tone, and so forth).
B. Problem Statement
Based on the background above the researcher formulates question as follow:
To what extent is the use of Satir Categories to improve students speaking skill at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah 3 Bontoala ?
C. Objective of the Research
Relating to the problem statement above, the objective of the research is to know whether Satir Categories can improve the students’ speaking skill.
D. Significance of the Research
It is expected that the finding of this research will help the students to know that Satir Categories can be used to improve their speaking skill and to understand the nature of the people involved in a communication and to handle a communication. Moreover, finding is also expected that the students will be able to choose what category should be used depending on the situation and context of the conversation.
E. Scope of the Research
This research will focus on Using Satir Categories in improving the students’ speaking skill at the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah 3 Bontoala Makassar
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter is divided into 3 section, review of relevant research finding, review of the theory and concept, and review of speaking.
A. Previous Related Research Findings
The research about the styles used in major portion of communication on the preferences and mannerisms of people when involved in a conversation has been done by some researchers with different perspectives. A few of the findings are summarized as in the following that serve as an overview to this current research.
In addition about finding, Mahmud (2008:27) in the research about polite sentences produced by male and female students in classroom interaction formulated problem statement, namely: what forms of the polite sentences were used by male and female students in sharing opinion in the classroom interaction? In this Fatmawati Mahmud research, she found that most male student chose “would you like” and the most female chose would you…….. please.
Based on the previous findings above, the researcher can explain that this research is similar to Fitriani’s and Nuratifah’s research. This research has some concerns with improving the students’ speaking ability especially in the elements of the speaking and the way to improve speaking ability.
This research is different from Mahmud research. Because their research not only concerns with the elements of speaking but also concerns with how to delivery speaking. While this research focuses on the elements of speaking and the way to improve speaking ability.
Furthermore, Samad (1989 : 36) reported, self confidence is one of some factors in fluencing students’ speaking ability. “Speaking is oral communication. One of important aspects influencing speaking ability is braveness. We do need it to interact with others.” Hence, the act of speaking involves not only the production of sound but also the use of gestures.
In addition, according to Ochs and Winkler (1979) in Carlile (1991), the following symptoms my occur separately or in combination; voice, verbal fluency, mouth and throat, facial expressions, arms and hands, and grow body movements.
Moreover, Knoblauch and Brannon (1984) represent usual attitude: the last two stages were important to orientation as oral communication, but are not relevant to written “memory” concerned the mnemonic devices that enable an orator to recall the parts of argument in correct sequence, while “delivery” concerned the gestures, body movements, and facial expression accompanying the performance. (p.35)
One study, done several years ago at the University of Chicago, examined “the spontaneous, ephemeral, made-up-on-the fly” gesturing we do every day. It conclude that at least half of language is imagery and that body language gives form to that imagery more than spoken words.
Http//How_2274513_use-hand-gestures-public-speaking.html. A good speaker keeps his speech flowing smoothly with both his voice and his hands. When you are passionate about a subject, hand gestures can non-verbal convey and intent behind the words.
Http//imboard.rediff.com has received many letters from its reader about their problems in speaking English. Lack confidence, can not afford group discussion and don’t feel better to speak in front of many people.
From my point of view, in speaking there are many elements that people have to know. One of important things is expression. As same as four elements of speaking such as listening, writing, reading and speaking, expression is also needed to build up good conversation even more. Expression can be seen from someone’s performance using gesture or whole of the body. It is used to make someone easily to understand what is talking about.
B. Some Pertinent Ideas
1. Review of Satir Categories
In learning English, one of the important skills which people have to have is speaking skill. They have to have the best pronunciation, intonation, grammatically and appropriate vocabulary to speak. However, not only those qualifications but also the expression when they are speaking is just as important. No matter how good their phonology, syntax, or even their semantic are without expression is nothing. Virginia Satir developed five categories, now known as Satir Categories for handling different language behaviors and enabling better communication between indifiduals. The five Satir patterns, also incorporated in Neuro-linguistic programming, are Blamer, Placater, Computer, Distracter, and Leveler. These categories give the description for the styles used in major portion of communication, and provide valuable information on the preferences and mannerisms of people when involved in a conversation. The use of Satir Categories will be main concern in this study.
a. Component of Satir Categories
In the following, there are five categories that is developed by Virginia Satir :
1) The Blamer
The Blamer uses verbal patterns intended to demonstrate that they are in charge, the boss, the one with power and so, their typical speech includes: “You never consider my feelings”. The blamer tries to find someone who cantake the blame when the things go wrong. The blamer will thrust his thoughs and feelings on others. This is useful if you need to make a point. It is also useful in an emergency situation.
2) The Placator
The Placator is frightened that other people will become angry, go away and never come back again and so typical speech might be: “Whatever anybody else wants is fine by me”. The placeter also wants to place the blame somewhere else, so in any way he is mirroring the blamer. They attempt to shift responsibility of a mistake in a diplomatic fashion, so that people think they are nice. This is useful if you want to gain sympathy for a point of view.
3) The Computer
The Computer or Super Reasonable is terrified that someone will find out what their feelings are. The computer are more like machines, they use language that hide their inner emotions. Their best defense is that they never let anyone else know what they are up to, or what they are thinking. They are always logical and under control, and do not exhibit any emotions. They commonly dissociate and avoid saying “I” and may use “one” instead. They will typically use language like: “It is obvious that there is no problem here”. This can be useful when you have been asked a question, to buy time before answering.
4) The Distracter
The Distracter continually switches from one category to another due to an underlying feeling of panic. The dictracter is a mix of Blamer, Placater, and Computer. One moment they might be blaming someone using threatening language, the next moment they might show their placate charactheristic. Then they will jump into the computer type and shut off all emotions. This can be useful when you need to lift the energy level.
5) The Leveller
The Leveller genuinely “levels” with you and what they say is what they feel. The leveller gives frank information which sometimes people are not ready to receive. They will say things like: “This is the way it is”. The most important characteristic of the leveler is that they do not have the characterstics of any other Satir Category. A leveler is seen as a congruent person, and always states facts. You can depend on the leveler, because he remains true to his perceptions. This is extremely useful to end questions and to give impartial or factual information.
The body language of any person can be used to identify the Satir Categories that they use. The Blamer uses visual features in their breathing, postures and gestures. The Blamer will point fingers often with the palm facing down. The Placater on the other hand uses kinesthetic features. Their palms will be turned up as if they are begging for attention. The computer will use auditory digital features. They will usually fold their arms. The Distracter will adopt any one of the there physiologies at any time, since they will keep switching from one pattern to another. The Leveler will have both palms facing down as if trying to level the situation.
When we are in a conversation, you can adopt a particular Satir Category depending on the category chosen by the other person. In this case, we must not match the Satir Category of the other person, since this will break the rapport and enchance the pattern that is being used to a point beyond control. We must learn the aspects and stances of each of the Satir categories. Using all the categories efficiently will open new doors to conversations or public speaking.
2. Sources and Functions of Satir Categories
Satir Categories adopted in Neuro-linguistic programming give the description for the styles used in major portion of communication, and provide valuable information on the preferences and mannerisms of people when involved in a conversation. Then, Widdowson (1985) states that an act of the communication through speaking is commonly performed in face-to-face interaction and occurs as parts of dialogue or rather forms of verbal exchange. What is said, therefore, it depends on an understanding. He further states that the act of speaking involves not only the production of sound but also the use of gesture, the movement of muscle of face, and indeed of the whole of body. All of these non-vocal accomplishments of speaking as communication activity are transmitted through the visual medium.
Other, Irwin (1979: 10-18) states that oral skill is what people say, how to say it, and where the speaker and listener are. They express what they are feeling at the moment ant the llisteners just keep listening and understanding in order to give responses. Further, Byrne (1976: 8) states that oral communication is two way processes between the speaker and the listener and involves the productive skills as speaking and receptive skills as list. So both the speakers and the listeners are active during the oral communication take place. This means that a speaker may express his/her mind to the listeners give responses relates to the topic they talk about.
Lenny Laskowski (1997) states that gestures are reflections of every speaker’s individual personality. What's right for one speaker may not be right for another; however, the following six rules apply to anyone who seeks to become a dynamic effective speaker.
a. Respond naturally to what you think, feel, and see. - It's natural for you to gesture, and it's unnatural for you not to. If you inhibit your impulse to gesture, you will probably become tense.
b. Create the condition for gesturing, not the gesture - When you speak, you should be totally involved in communicating-not thinking about your hands. Your gestures should be motivated by the content of your presentation.
c. Suit the action to the word and the occasion - Your visual and verbal messages must function as partners in communicating the same thought or feeling. Every gesture you make should be purposeful and reflective of your words so the audience will note only the effect, not the gesture itself. Don't overdo the gesturing. You'll draw the listener away from your message. Young audiences are usually attracted to a speaker who uses vigorous gestures, but older, more conservative groups may feel irritated or threatened by a speaker whose physical actions are overwhelming.
d. Make your gestures convincing - Your gestures should be lively and distinct if they are to convey the intended impressions. Effective gestures are vigorous enough to be convincing yet slow enough and broad enough to be clearly visible without being overpowering.
e. Make your gestures smooth and well timed - Every gesture has three parts:
1) The Approach - Your body begins to move in anticipation.
2) The Stroke - The gesture itself.
3) The Return - This brings your body back to a balanced posture.
The flow of a gesture - the approach, the stroke, the return-must be smoothly executed so that only the stroke is evident to the audience. While it is advisable to practice gesturing, don't try to memorize your every move. This makes your gesturing stilted and ineffective. The last rule is perhaps the most important but also the hardest.
4) Make natural, spontaneous gesturing a habit- The first step in becoming adept at gesturing is to determine what, if anything, you are doing now. The best way to discover this is to videotape yourself. The camcorder is completely truthful and unforgiving. If you want to become a better speaker, you need to make the camcorder your best friend. Videotape yourself and identify your bad habits, then work at eliminating them, one at a time. You will need to continue to record yourself and evaluate your progress if you expect to eliminate all your distracting mannerisms. To improve gestures, practice - but never during a speech. Practice gesturing while speaking informally to friends, family member, and coworkers.
C. Review of Speaking
Speaking is one of four skills that the students have to have in learning second language. Speaking skill itself has components, they are pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and fluency.
1. Components of Speaking
Producing words by correct sound will decrease misunderstanding in conversation while speaking, even when many words have the same sound when producing. As a matter of fact, it can be situated depending on topic of conversation. Hornby (1995), pronunciation is the way in which a language is spoken.
Arranging word per word into sentence by using correct form and having a complete meaning makes easier an understanding not only in written language but also in spoken language. According to Hornby in Oxford (1995), grammar is the rule in language for changing the form of words and combining into sentences.
All words used by people in listening, writing, reading and speaking. Based on Oxford dictionary (1995); vocabulary is all the words known to a person or used in particular book, subject etc.
In Oxford (1995) fluency is the quality or condition of being fluent. Beside, the four elements above, the other things that someone is used in processing information are an idea, the conventional relation between idea and words, the connecting moving way of articulation and words and the functional articulation. The four factors above have to exist, if they were not, the strangers of language would happen.
2. Characteristic of Communicative Competence
Speaking is the ability to give understanding to others using sound and rhyme when the process of transfer information running.
There are some elements in speaking such as; vocabulary, syntax, sound, and also rhyme.
In speaking, one needs to articulate sounds in a comprehensible manner, one needs an adequate vocabulary, and one needs to have mastery of syntax. Moreover, expression is just as important as others. These various elements add up to linguistic competence. However, while linguistic competence is necessary, it is not suffient for someone who wants to communicate competenly in a nother language. (David Nunan; 1999).
D. Theoretical Framework
INPUT : This research refers to the technique of teaching speaking students.
PROCESS : Process refers to the implementation of the input variable in the classroom using Satir Categories.
OUTPUT : The output refers to the students’ speaking ability.
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