Senin, 27 Mei 2013
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Contoh Proposal Penelitian


This chapter presents the introduction that consists of background, problem statement, objective of the research, significant of the research and scope of the research.
A. Background
There are four language skills namely: listening, speaking, writing and reading. To achieve the four skills, it is important to master language components namely : vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.

 One of the language components that holds an important role is vocabulary. We can see that in speaking skills, the student cannot speak English because they have limited vocabulary. In reading and listening skills, the student cannot understand what they read and listen, because they lack vocabulary. Wilkins in Widiastuty (1997 : 111) states that the fact is without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed.
Vocabulary is one of the important things in learning English. Learning vocabulary for young learner is fundamental because the ability of students to learn English especially to read as well as to comprehend the subject is determined by vocabulary competence if the learners have no or lack vocabulary and the ability to communicate and to convey their need could not be established.
Beside that, vocabulary is one of the important elements in building up English. It is impossible to express our ideas, emotion, feeling, and desire without vocabulary. The mastery of vocabulary becomes very essential for the students to learn a language, whether as a second language or as a foreign language. Rita (1994)

This chapter presents review of related literature dealing with some related research findings, some pertinent ideas, resume, theoretical framework and hypothesis.
A. Previous Related Research Findings
Some researchers have conducted research related to the teaching of vocabulary which are cited briefly below :
Sarlotha (1997) conclude that the game made the students easier to memorize and understand the vocabulary presented by applied vocabulary games teaching, the games motivated students improving their vocabulary and practicing English and vocabulary teaching through game is one of a good technique.
Jumiaty (2003) concludes that the use of pocket cards as teaching materials is useful to help the students in improving their vocabulary mastery.
Nurmiaty (2004) conclude that the use of whispering game as technique in teaching, especially in teaching vocabulary  is very effective in improving the vocabulary achievement of the second years students of SLTP Negeri Makassar.
Widya Widiastuty (2004) concludes that word guessing game is invaluable as they given students a break and allow them to practice language skill.
Hasram (2008) emphasizes that through the outburst game, learners can practice and internalize vocabulary extensively.
Based on the finding above, the researcher can concluded that English will be an interesting subject if the teacher create an interesting class too. So the teachers

This chapter presents method of the research, research design, variable of the research, population and sample, instrument of the research, technique of data collection and technique of data analysis.
A. Research Design.
      This research employed pre-experimental with one group pre-test (O1) and post-test design (O2). It aimed at finding out whether Noughts and Crosses game improve the students’ vocabulary or not. The comparison between the pre-test and post-test scores determined the success of the treatment . On the treatment (X), the researcher taught vocabulary by using Noughts and Crosses game.
      The design can be described as follows :

                  O1                             X1 - X2 - X3 - X4                          O2
           PRE-TEST                      TREATMENT                 POST-TEST 

                                                                                          ( Gay, 1981 : 225 )
B. Variable of The Research.
This research has two variables, they were :
  1. Independent variable was the use of  Noughts and Crosses game.
  2. Dependent variable was students’ English vocabulary achievement.


This chapter particularly presents the findings of the research and its discussion. The finding of the research consists of the description of the result of data collected through the test and the discussion covers the details interpretation of the findings.
A. Findings
                  This findings of this research deal with the students’ scores of pre-test and post-test, the frequency and rate percentage of the students’ score, the mean scores and standard deviation of pre-test and post-test, the t-test value, and hypothesis testing. These findings are described as follows :
a. The rate percentage of students’ scores.
Table 1. The rate percentage of the pre-test
                   Total                                                30                     100 %
Very Good
Very Poor 
91 – 100
76 – 90
61 – 75
51 – 60
Less than 50
10 %
20 %
23.33 %
16.67 %
30 %

Table 1 above shows the percentage and frequency of the students’ pre-test. There were 3 (10 %) out of 30 students got very good scores, 6 (20 %) students got good scores, 7 (23,33 %) students got fair scores, 5 (16,67 %) got poor scores and 9 (30 %) students got very poor. From the result it can be concluded that the students’ vocabulary achievement on pre-test ranges from very good to very poor.


            This chapter deals with two sections, the first section contains conclusion based on the research findings and discussion. The second section contains suggestion based on the conclusions.
A. Conclusion
Based on the research findings and discussion in the previous chapter, the researcher puts toward conclusion as follows:
There is significant difference between the result of the pre test and post test of the students’ score who are taught by using noughts and crosses game.  It can be seen through the mean score of pre-test was 64.273 and it was classified as ‘fair’ score while the mean score of post-test was 76.333 and it was classified as ‘good’ score and the result of t- test value was greater than the t-table value (8.894 > 2.045). Furthermore, the use of sequence word game is interesting to the students. So, they are motivated to learn vocabulary.
Then, this led to the conclusion that the use of noughts and crosses game is effective and applicable in teaching vocabulary. It obviously, seems that there was improvement in students’ vocabulary mastery after the treatment was given. Noughts and crosses game is one of the various teaching strategies that work under the students’ achievement and their social relationship.

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